Lessons

LESSON 15

15.1 SUFFIXES FOR ORIGINS AND NATIONALITIES 

Origins are also expressed by suffixes, determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY:
-li, -lı, -lu, -lü

This suffixe are to be added to countries or cities/places.

Examples:
İstanbul – İstanbullu = citizen of Istanbul
Londra – Londralı
 = citizen of London 
Pekin (= Beijing) – Pekinli = citizen of Beijing 
Auvusturya (= Austria) – Avusturyalı = the Austrian

Following some more countries with nationalities:
Avustralya = Australia – Avustralyalı = Australian
(Attention, not to mistake with Avusturya = Austria)
Belçika = Belgium – Belçikalı = Belgian
Çin = China – Çinli = Chinese
Hollanda = Holland – Hollandalı = Dutch 
İrlanda = Ireland – İrlandalı = Irish
İsveç = Sweden – İsveçli = Swede
İsviçre = Switzerland – İsviçreli = Swiss
Portekiz = Portugal – Portekizli = Portuguese

Moreover there are also fixed terms for nationalities:
Examples:
Alman = German – the country Almanya = Germany
Arap = Arab – the country Arabistan = Arabia
Fransız = French – the country Fransa = France
İngiliz = English – the country İngiltere = England
İskoç = Scottish – the country İskoçya = Scottland
İspanyol = Spanish – the country İspanya = Spain
İtalyan = Italian – the country İtalya = Italy
Japon
 = Japanese – the country Japonya = Japan
Rus = Russian – the country Rusya = Russia
Türk
 = Turk – the country Türkiye = Turkey

15.2 LANGUAGES 

In Turkish terms for languages always end with
-ce or -ca
after hard consonates with
-çe or -ça
… so it’s determined by the Little Vowel Harmony.

The combination of the suffixes for countries and languages creates the language.Examples:
Avustralyaca
 = = Australian language (though this languages might not exist)
Çince = Chinese language
İrlandaca = Irish language
İskoçyaca = Scottisch language
İsveççe = Swedish language
İsviçrece = Swiss language
Portekizce
 = Portuguese language 

Exceptions as not occuring from the countries’ names:
Almanca = German language 
Arapça = Arab language
Fransızca = French language
İngilizce = English language
İspanyolca = Spanish language
İtalyanca = Italian language
Japonca
 = Japanese language
Rusça = Russian language
Türkçe
 = Turkish language

And last but not least in Turkish there is also the so called Tarzanca. You speak this language when nobody knows what you’re talking about and doesn’t understand you at all. In English it would be translated with “it’s all Greek to me”, but for the Turks it’s the jungle language “Tarzanian”…

IMPORTANT: The suffix for language only refers to a language, it’s not an adjective. For example if you had italian food, this suffix is not appropiate. You would then say: Dün Italyan yemeği yedik. = “Yesterday we ate italian food.” 

15.3 PROFESSIONS 

Also professions have their own suffixes:
-ci, -cı, -cu or -cü
after hard consonantes
-çi, -çı, -çu or -çü
… and therefore following the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY.

Let’s take simple terms like 
posta = the post, mail 
 = the work 
yazı = the font 
fırın = the oven, the bakery 

By adding the above mentioned suffixes you create professions:
postacı
 = the postman 
işçi = the worker 
yazıcı = the writer 
fırıncı = the baker

But there are also fixed terms like:
kasap = the butcher

15.4 FORMING GENERAL TERMS 

With another suffix you can create general terms:
-lik, -lık, -luk, -lük (GREAT VOWEL HARMONY)

Taking the formerly created professions you receive with this suffixes general terms as follows:
postacılık
 = the postal system 
işçilik = the workership 
yazıcılık
 = the business of writing 
fırıncılık = the business of baking 
birlik
 = the unity (from bir = one)

These are more abstract terms but you there can also result very concrete terms, like for example:
sebzelik
 = the vegetable cooler (in the fridgerator)
kitaplık = the bookshelf 

Vocabulary:
fırın = the oven, the bakery; iş = the work; kasap = the butcher; kütüphane = the library; memleket = the country, the homeland; posta = the post, mail; sebze = the vegetable; ülke = the country, the state; yazı = the font, the script