hafta = week 
bugün = today 
dün = yesterday 
önceki günü = before yesterday 
yarın = tomorrow 
öbür günü = after tomorrow 

Pazartesi = Monday
Salı = Tuesday 
Çarşamba = Wednesday 
Perşembe = Thursday 
Cuma = Friday 
Cumartesi = Saturday
Pazar = Sunday 

Week days are proper nouns and there written with capital letters at the beginning. 

Bugün Pazartesi. = Today is Monday. 
Yarın Salı (günü). = Tomorrow is Tuesday. 

gün (= day) is used frequently in combination with week days but it’s optional – literally it would mean: “Tomorrow is Tuesday day.”, which of course is double said but only in a literal translation. 
Perşembe (günü) buluşalım mi? =Shall we meet on Thursday? 
Dün Pazardı. = Yesterday was Sunday.
Here we use a past tense as yesterday is past and you just add the according “to be”-form to the week day.

Day times  
sabah = morning 
öğle = noon 
öğleden sonra = afternoon 
akşam = evening 
gece = night 


ay = month (also the moon) 
yıl = year 

Ocak = January 
Şubat = February
Mart = March
Nisan = April 
Mayıs = May
Haziran = June
Temmuz = July
Ağustos = August 
 = September 
Ekim = October 
Kasım = November 
Aralık = December

Month are also proper nouns.

The date is just a number with months plus year. So the answer to question
Bugün ayın kaçı? = Which date is today?
could be for example  
3 Nisan 1998 (üç Nisan bin dokuz yüz doksan sekiz) = 3rd April 1998 
22 Eylül 1632 (yirmi iki Eylül bin altı yüz otuz iki) = 22nd September 1632

The four seasons: 
mevsim = season 
bahar oder ilkbahar = spring 
yaz = summer 
sonbahar = autumn 
kış = winter

There is an exception with the seasons: 
If you like to say “in spring” or “in autumn” you just use the locative as known: 
(ilk)baharda oder sonbaharda 
Exception : “in summer” or “in winter”, then it’s: 
yazın or kışın


saat = hour (also the clock, watch) 
dakika = minute 
saniye = second 

Furthermore:  çeyrek = quarter and buçuk = half.

et’s say it’s a quarter past 3 and somebody asks you: 
Saat kaç? = What time is it? 
You have following options to answer: 
1) Simple way: saat beş on beş = 5.15 (five fifteen). 
2) or a bit more formal: saat beşi çeyrek geçiyor = a quarter past five – literal translation: 5 is passed by a quarter.

For telling the time you need the accusative, if you’re in the first half of an hour.

On the other side, when telling the time for the second half of an hour you use the dative: 
1) saat beş kırk beş = 5.45. 
2) saat altıya çeyrek var = a quarter to 6 – literal translation: There is a quarter until 6.

The “half past” times are neutral: saat on iki buçuk (simple way: saat on iki otuz) = half past twelve (12.30)

For fixing a time you use the locative and replace var by kala and geçiyor by geçe. 
Saat kaçta? = At what time?: 
Saat iki (on dört) buçukta. or Saat iki (on dört) otuzda. = At half past 2. – At 14.30.
Saat dört (on altı) buçuğa beş kala. or Saat dört (on altı) yirmi beşte. = At five to half past 4. – At 16.25.  
Saat dokuza çeyrek kala. or Saat sekiz kırk beşte. = At quarter to 9. – At 8.45.
Saat onu çeyrek geçe. oder Saat on on beşte. = At quarter past 10. – At 10.15.

It’s up to you if you use the simple or the formal way to express time. Both versions are right and common.


12.4.1 “Before/ago” and “after/in” 
önce = before/ago 
sonra = after/in

Üç hafta önce. = 3 weeks ago. 
İki ay sonra. = After/in 2 months. 
Altı gün önce. = 6 days ago. 
Beş yıl sonra. = After/in 1 year. 
Saat ikiden sonra.
 = After 10 o’clock.

12.4.2 “From… until/to…” 
A combination of ablative/dative and kadar defines also time period. 
Pazartesi’den Cuma’ya kadar. = From Monday to Friday. 
Saat dokuzdan üçe kadar. 
= From 9 to 3 o’clock
Temmuz’den Eylül’a kadar.
 = From July to September. 
On buçuktan on ikiye çeyrek kalaya kadar. = From half past 10 until quarter to 12.

12.4.3 More Prepositions 
…(always in combination with ablative): 
beri = since (for) 
Saat yediden beri kullanıyorum. = I’m driving since 7 o’clock. 
Yedi saatten beri kullanıyorum. = I’m driving for 7 hours.

evvel = before 
Saat yediden evvel vardık. = We arrived before 7 o’clock. 
Ondan evvel vardık.
 = We arrived before him/her. 
(Not to mistake with önce
Yedi saat önce vardık. = We arrived 7 hours ago.)

itibaren = (as) from 
Saat sekizden itibaren arayacağım. = As from 8 o’clock I’ll call you.
Ocaktan itibaren, diyet yapacağım. 
= As from January I’m going to make a diet. 

beri = since, for; çünkü = because; evvel = before; itibaren = as from; kadar = to, until; önce = before/ago; sigara içmek = to smoke (to “drink” the cigarette); ve = and; veya = or