11.1 THE CONDITIONAL
The conditional describes a hypothetical action. Something which can be translated in simple form with “would be, would do”.
In Turkish you form the conditional with the suffix -sa/-sa.
The suffix follows the Little Vowel Harmony:
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an e, i, ö or ü the suffix is -se.
If the last vowel of the verb stem is an a, ı, o or u the suffix is -sa.
bilsem = if I would know
bilsen = if you would know
bilse = if he/she/it would know
bilsek = if we would know
bilseniz = if you (plural) would know
bilseler = if they would know
yapsam = if I would do
yapsan = if you would do
yapsa = if he/she/it would do
yapsak = if we would do know
yapsanız = if you (plural) would do
yapsalar = if they would do
In conditonal of course you can change also the tenses:
yapsaydım = if I would have done
yapsaydın = if you would have done
yapsaydı = if he/she/it would have done
yapsaydık = if we would have done
yapsaydınız = if you (plural) would have done
yapsaydılar = if they would have done
11.2 NEGATION OF CONDITONAL
For negating the conditional we use the famous suffix -me/-ma:
bilmesem = if I wouldn’t know
bilmesen = if you wouldn’t know
bilmese = if he/she/it wouldn’t know
bilmesek = if we wouldn’t know
bilmeseniz = if you (plural) wouldn’t know
bilmeseler = if they wouldn’t know
yapmasam = if I wouldn’t do
yapmasan = if you wouldn’t do
yapmasa = if he/she/it wouldn’t do
yapmasak = if we wouldn’t do
yapmasanız = if you (plural) wouldn’t do
yapmasalar = if they wouldn’t do
11.3 MODIFICATIONS OF CONDITIONAL
You can also combine the conditional with var or yok:
varsa = if there is
yoksa = if there isn’t
Domates varsa, bana lütfen iki kilo verir misin? = If there are tomatos please give me 2 kilos?
11.4 “IF” = “EĞER”
Another option to form conditional phrases is offered by eğer. Anyway the suffixes –se/-sa still have to be used but if you begin your sentence with eğerthe listener knows automatically that a conditional sentence is now following.
Eğer domates varsa, bana lütfen iki kilo verir misin?
akşam = the evening; aramak = to call (by phone); cevap = the answer; cevap vermek = to answer; çağırmak = to call; çarşı = the (city) centre, the market; eğer = if; pazar = the market, Sunday; sabah = the morning; zaman = the time