Let’s go on with the simple things…


 sıfır = 0 
 bir = 1 
 iki = 2 
 üç = 3 
 dört = 4 
 beş = 5 
 altı = 6 
 yedi = 7 
 sekiz = 8 
 dokuz = 9
 on = 10

The next numbers then just are simple combinations: 

 on bir = 11 
 on iki = 12 
 on üç = 13 
 on dokuz = 19

Now the tenners, also just combinations: 

 yirmi = 20 
 yirmi bir = 21 
 yirmi iki = 22 
 yirmi üç = 23 
 yirmi dört = 24 
 otuz = 30 
 kırk = 40 
 elli = 50 
 altmış = 60 
 yetmiş = 70 
 seksen = 80 
 doksan = 90

 yüz = 100 
 yüz bir = 101 
 yüz on bir = 111 
 yüz yirmi bir = 121 
 iki yüz = 200 
 üç yüz = 300

 bin = 1,000 
 bin bir = 1,001 
 bin iki yüz doksan bir = 1,291 
 on bin = 10,000 
 yüz bin = 100,000 
 bir milyon = 1,000,000 
 iki milyon = 2,000,000
 bir milyar = 1 billion 


Learning the numbers also includes the ordinals. For this we need a new suffix:
-(i)nci (the vowel in bracks is just used if the number ends on a consonante). 

The suffix depens on the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY

If last vowel is an a or ı the suffix must be -ıncı.
If last vowel is an e or i the suffix must be -inci.
If last vowel is an o or u the suffix must be -uncu
If last vowel is an ö or ü the suffix must be -üncü

 birinci = 1st 
 ikinci = 2nd 
 üçüncü = 3rd 
 dördüncü = 4th (notice that t is modified to d
beşinci = 5th
altıncı = 6th
yedinci = 7th
sekizinci = 8th
dokuzuncu = 9th
onuncu = 10th
on birinci = 11th
yirminci = 20th
otuzuncu = 30th 
yüzüncü = 100th 
milyonuncu = 1,000,000th
milyarıncı = billionth

Let’s have a closer look to dördüncü as you surely wondered why t changes to d. This is because of the “harmony”. There are the so called “Hard Consonantes” k, p and t. Always keeping them sometimes doesn’t sound “harmonic” for turkish ears. For example, it’s easier to speak out dördüncü instead of “dörtüncu”. Try it, which word is more fluently to speak? Exactly… But it’s also a question of feeling. With the time you get used to which sounds more harmonic as you develop a sense for the language. 

Modification of “Hard Consonantes” is very usual so better get familiar with it. 
But these three letters are not the only “Hard Consonantes”, there are also ç, f, h, s and ş. These consonantes are not getting modified but they harden the following suffix (depending on the suffix also after k, p and t). These will be more understandable in following lessons, but we mention it here, so you have a fair chance to get mentally prepared. 


Forming the plural is almost as easy as in English. You just have to add a -lar or -ler, following the  Little Vowel Harmony
If last vowel is an a, ı, o or u then use -lar.
If last vowel is an e, i, ö or ü then use -ler

araba = the car – arabalar = (the) cars 
oda = the room – odalar = (the) rooms 
çocuk = the child – çocuklar = (thee) children 
pencere = the window – pencereler = (the) windows 
kedi = the cat – kediler = (the) cats 
(Remember that in Turkish there are no definite articles!) 

BUT: If you indicate a quantity you don’t have to use the plural form anymore. What does that mean?

For example you say in English: 
one car, two cars, three cars, a undefined quantity of cars… thus if the quantity of cars is more than one, in English you are forced to use the plural. Not so in Turkish: 

bir araba = a car 
arabalar = (we don’t know how many) cars 
iki araba = two cars 
üç araba = three cars 

The Turk prefers the simple way and thinks: If anyway the number indicates that I speak about many cars, why forming additionally a plural? 

Another hint: You can combine the plural also with names, which can be the description of a complete “clan” or group of people. This can be practical. 
Mehmetler = the “Mehmets”, which can mean: brothers, sisters, father, mother of Mehmet or his (closest) friends, etc. 
Mehmetler gelecek. = The Mehmets (Mehmet and his family) will come. 
It’s even not unusual for English ears as it could be translated with: Mehmet and Co. 


The expressions “there is” and “there is not” are used very often in Turkish. 

var = there is 
yok = there is not

That’s it, you don’t need more. 

You in are shop and would like to buy vegetables. So you ask the vender: 
Domates var mı? = Are there tomatoes? 
(in this context it means something more like: Do you have tomatoes?)


In lesson 1 you have learned the personal pronouns ben, sen, o, biz, siz, onlar(I, you, he/she/it, we, you (plural), they). By adding another suffix you form the possessive pronouns: 

benim = my
senin = your 
onun = his/her/its 
bizim = our 
sizin = your (plural or polite form) 
onların = their 

Combinating with nouns these possessive pronouns never change. 

benim araba = my car 
senin akraba = your relative 

But usually these possessive pronouns are not used but replaced by another suffix added to the noun. The pronouns itself are used to emphasize that something is YOURS, HIS, MY, etc… So without possessive pronouns it looks as follows: 

arabam = my car 
araban = your car 
arabası = his/her/its car 
arabamız = our car 
arabanız = your (plural or polite form) car 
arabası = their car

Explanation: The possessive suffixes are determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY, so the complete list looks as follows: 
1st person singular: -(i)m / -(ı)m / -(u)m / -(ü)m 
2nd person singular: -(i)n / -(ı)n / -(u)n / -(ü)n 
3rd person singular: -(s)i / -(s)ı) / -(s)u / -(s)ü 
1st person plural: -(i)miz / -(ı)mız / -(u)muz / -(ü)müz 
2nd person plural: -(i)niz / -(ı)nız / -(u)nuz / -(ü)nüz 
3rd prson plural: -(s)i / -(s)ı) / -(s)u / -(s)ü as in 3rd person singular) 

In case the noun ends on a consonate you don’t need the letter in bracks:
arabası (his/her car), kedin (your cat), evimiz (our house), gülünüz (your (plural or polite form) rose), kitapları (his/her books)

In case of a proper name (names, towns, countries) you separate the suffix with an apostrophe:
İngiltere’si... (England’s…), İstanbul’u… (Istanbul’s…), Lale’si... (Lale’s…)

Another example but already anticipated with a genitive construction: 
Mehmet’in arabası. = Mehmet’s car. Literally: Of Mehmet his car…(Mehmet’in is a genitive construction)).

In next lesson we are going to deal with all cases. Then this example sentence will be more clear.

By the way: As in English in Turkish proper nouns are always written with a capital letter at the beginning. Apart from that in you write always with small letters – except on a sentence’s beginning of course!


3.6.1 Questions with “mi
With mi you have the possibility of forming simple questions. These are just simple yes/no questions. 

Gelecek mi? = Will he/she/it come? – This question can be answered with yes or no, “from where” or “to where” doesn’t matter. 

Depending on in which person you are asking, mi gets modified:
miyim = referring to myself => Gelecek miyim? = Will I come? 
misin = referring to you => Gelecek misin? = Will you come? 
mi = referring to him/her/it => Gelecek mi? = Will he/she/it come? 
miyiz = referring to us => Gelecek miyiz = Will we come? 
 = referring to you (plural) => Gelecek misiniz? = Will you (plural) come? 
mi = referring to them ==> Gelecekler mi? = Will they come? 

The verb is always in 3rd person and you adjust mi accordingly to the related person (except in 3rd person as mi is already the 3rd person question particle). In plural 3rd person the verb of course has to be modified to plural form, but  miitself remains unchanged. 

Important to know that mi is determined by the GREAT VOWEL HARMONY
– if last vowel of the anterior word is an a or ı, then mi changes to  
(=>accordingly mıyım, mısın, mı, mıyız, mısınız, mı
– if last vowel of the anterior word is an e or i, then mi remains unchanged 
(=>accordingly miyim, misin, mi, miyiz, misiniz, mi
– if last vowel of the anterior word is an o or u, then mi changes to mu 
(=>accordingly muyum, musun, mu, muyuz, musunuz, mu
– if last vowel of the anterior word is an ö or ü,then mi changes to  
(=>accordingly müyüm, müsün, mü, müyüz, müsünüz, mü)

Sigaran var mı? =Do you have a cigarette? (literally: Is there your cigarette?) 
Kaleminiz var mı? = Do you (plural) have a pen? (literally: Is there your pen?) 
Kalıyor musun? = Do you stay? 
(Note: These examples include already the possessiv pronuns and Continuous Present which will be explained in later. Here it’s just about the mi.)

3.6.2 Other interrogative words

Kim? = Who? – Example: O kim? or Kim o? = Who is this? 
Ne? = What? – Example: Ne yapıyorsun? = What are you doing? 
Nerede? = Where? – Example: Kitap nerede? = Where is the book? 
Nereye? = Where to? – Example: Nereye gidiyorsun? = Where are you going? 
Neden? or Niye? = Why? – Example: Neden/Niye gittin? = Why did you go?
Nasıl? = How? – Example: Nasıl dinleniyoruz? = How do we rest? 
Hangi? = Which? – Example: Hangi araba? = Welches Auto? 
Kaç? or Ne kadar? = How much/many? Example: Fiyatı ne kadar/kaç? = How much is it? (literally: Its price is how much?)

açmak = to open; akraba = the relative; araba = the car; çocuk = the child; dinlenmek = to rest, to relax; domates = the tomato; ev = the house; fiyat = the price; gül = the rose; hangi = which; İngiltere = England; kaç = how much; kalem = the pen; kedi = the cat; kim = who; kitap = the book; nasıl = how; ne = what; ne kadar = how much; neden = why; nerede = where; nereye = whereto; niye = why; oda = the room; pencere = the window; sigara = the cigarette; var = there is/existent; yok = there is not/not existent